Chapter 4 Intro: Multivariate analyses

For instance, our research question might be:

  1. How does the bacterial composition on maple leaves changes along the elevational gradient?

  2. What is the compositional dissimilarity of the bat communities?

  3. How closely-related spider local communities are in relation to their composition?

In all these cases, the outcome is composed of several variables, e.g. usually a sample-by-species or sample-by-environment matrix.